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Right to housing

The Right to housing is the idea that everyone should have the possibility to live somewhere, to housing and shelter free from homelessness. Many countries recognise it. It is also in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the Internation ...

                                               

Supreme court

A supreme court is generally the highest court in a country. This means that, in many countries, it is the court of last resort and it has more power than other courts. Decisions of lower appellate courts can be overruled here. However, not all h ...

                                               

Suzerainty

Suzerainty happens when a country X has its own government but cannot act independently because of a more powerful country Y. This more powerful country Y is called the suzerain and can usually control the foreign relations of X. It differs from ...

                                               

Act of Congress

An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress according to the powers granted to it by the Constitution of the United States. The term can be used in other countries with a legislature called a "Congress," such as the Cong ...

                                               

Advocacy

Advocacy can be defined as "public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy". It is a political process by an individual or group which aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutio ...

                                               

Age of majority

The age of majority is the age that children become adults by law. This means that they are legally in control over their own actions and decisions, and their parents are no longer responsible for them. When used this way, the word majority means ...

                                               

Amicus curiae

An amicus curiae is someone who is not a party to a case and offers information that affects the case but who has not been asked by any of the parties to assist a court. This may take the form of legal opinion, testimony or learned treatise. It i ...

                                               

Apportionment

Apportionment or apportionment by population is a concept in United States law of allocating representatives or taxes among the US states. Apportionment is based on the United States Census taken every ten years. Seats in the United States House ...

                                               

Cease and desist

A cease and desist letter is a document sent to an individual or business to stop attempted illegal activity and not to restart it. The letter may warn to the individual or business that if they do not stop certain behaviour by deadlines set in t ...

                                               

Civil law

Civil law, as a system of law, is different from common law, which is another system of law. The origin of the civil law system of law is ancient Rome. The civil law system is used in countries such as Germany, France, many countries which were c ...

                                               

Class action

A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit. One of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by one member of that group. The class action originated in the United States. It is still mainly ...

                                               

Conspiracy

A cabal is when religious, political, or tribal leaders meet secretly to plan things for their own purposes. Conspiracy, in politics, is a plan to overthrow a part or all of a government. Conspiracy, in civil law, is an agreement between persons ...

                                               

Coverture

Coverture is a long-standing legal practice in the United States that comes from the English common law. Coverture holds that a man and a woman are a single legal entity - that of the husband. A married woman loses her own legal obligations and r ...

                                               

De facto

De facto is a phrase from the Latin language that means "in fact" or "in practice". It is often used in contrast to de jure when talking about law, governance, or technique. When talking about law, de jure is used to describe what the law says, a ...

                                               

De jure

De jure is an expression from the Latin words meaning "in law". It is often used in contrast to de facto which means "in fact", or "in practice" when talking about law, governance, or technique. When talking about law, de jure is used to describe ...

                                               

Equity (law)

In common law countries equity is based on a judiciary assessment of fairness. It is what is often what is considered fair and right under natural law. It is used when the laws themselves do not address an issue or are inadequate in some way. Exa ...

                                               

Evidence (law)

In law, evidence is an object of some kind, a document of some kind, or the testimony of a person in a court of law. Evidence is used to show something is either true or false. Evidence has to follow rules in most jurisdictions. In the United Sta ...

                                               

Interrogation

Interrogation generally means formally or informally interviewing a person to gain needed information of some kind. Interrogations are used by military organizations, intelligence agencies and law enforcement agencies worldwide. Sometimes the int ...

                                               

Issue (legal)

In legal use, an "issue" means a point disputed by parties to a lawsuit. Legal issue may also refer to either a persons lineal descendants or a group of securities offered for sale. An issue of law is a question of how a law is applied rather tha ...

                                               

Judicial interpretation

Judicial interpretation is an explanation of how the judiciary interprets the law. In Common law, judicial interpretation is made up of guidelines that come from case law rather than from a legislature. These represent all previous judicial decis ...

                                               

Jury nullification

Jury nullification is a jury on purpose ignoring evidence or refusing to apply the law as explained in the jury instructions. A jury may feel the application of the law is unfair, unjust, or immoral in some way or may want to "send a message" abo ...

                                               

Jury trial

A jury trial or trial by jury is a legal proceeding in which a jury either makes a decision or makes findings of fact. This is called a verdict. The judge usually follows the jurys verdict in his ruling. It is distinguished from a bench trial, in ...

                                               

Line-item veto

A line-item veto is the power of the president to reject certain individual parts of a piece of legislation without rejecting the whole thing. In the United States, almost all governors leaders of the U.S. states are able to use the line item vet ...

                                               

Local ordinance

In the United States, these laws are enforced locally in addition to state law and federal law. In some states, the state legislature has limited the scope of local ordinances. This approach was made popular by John Forrest Dillon called the "Dil ...

                                               

Majority opinion

In law, a majority opinion is a judicial opinion agreed to by more than half of the members of a court. A majority opinion becomes the decision of the court in a matter. It also gives an explanation of the reasons for the courts decision.

                                               

Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or united with other entities.

                                               

Pardon

A pardon is a decision that absolves a convicted person of a criminal conviction. A pardon may be full or partial: A partial pardon does not fully absolve a person of the conviction. For example, a partial pardon may not set aside a finding of gu ...

                                               

Peremptory challenge

A peremptory challenge is a right during voir dire to reject a certain number of potential jurors without having to give a reason. The word "peremptory" means without a reason given; allowing no contradiction or refusal. Peremptory challenges may ...

                                               

Petitioner

A petitioner is a very specific legal term. It is the person who presents a formal legal petition to a court or a legislature that requests a certain action be taken. A petitioner is also the person who files a motion or an appeal to a higher cou ...

                                               

Plain view doctrine

The plain view doctrine allows law enforcement officers to collect evidence or contraband found in plain view while they are lawfully present. It is an exception to items spelled out in a search warrant and to the Fourth Amendment protection agai ...

                                               

Popular sovereignty in the United States

Popular sovereignty was a political doctrine in the United States that held that the people who lived in a state or region should decide what kind of government or laws they should have. It allowed settlers of a territory to decide for themselves ...

                                               

Prerogative

A prerogative is an exclusive power or privilege possessed by an official of a government or state as a part of his or her office. Under English law it is right of a sovereign, which in theory, has no restrictions. For example, the British monarc ...

                                               

Quorum

A quorum is the minimum number of members of an organization who must be present in order for their meeting to be legal or official. The word is often used in legislative assemblies, corporations and societies who make official decisions. The by- ...

                                               

Reparation (legal)

In jurisprudence, reparation is when a government gave money to loss by the criminal to the victim. Monetary restitution is a common form of reparation.

                                               

Restructuring

Restructuring is the corporate management term for the act of reorganizing the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company for the purpose of making it more profitable, or better organized for its present needs. Other reasons ...

                                               

Security interest

A security interest is a legal claim on collateral. The collateral can be real estate, personal property or any asset. Collateral is usually used to secure a loan. The borrower is the party who borrows the funds. The lender is the one who lends t ...

                                               

Separate but equal

Separate but equal was a legal doctrine that existed in the United States for 58 years. It was based on the United States Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson. Here the Court ruled that racial segregation was not in violation of the Fourteen ...

                                               

Subpoena

A subpoena is a written order that requires a witness to give testimony, or their statement of truth. A subpoena is usually issued by a court. If a person or organization does not respond to the subpoena, they may be punished by the court. There ...

                                               

Sui generis

Sui generis uːaɪ ˈdʒɛnərɪs" or) is a term from Latin. It can be translated to Of own kind. It basically means that something has very special characteristics. They are so special, that the thing cannot really be compared to anything else. It is u ...

                                               

Term limit

A term limit is a law that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential systems, they act as a method to reduce the potential for monopoly. This is when a leader e ...

                                               

Tort

Tort law is the part of law for most harms that are not either criminal or based on a contract. Tort law helps people to make claims for compensation when someone hurts them or hurts their property. For example, a car accident where one driver hu ...

                                               

Undue burden standard

The undue burden standard is a constitutional test created by the Supreme Court of the United States. The test, first developed in the late 19th century, is widely used in American constitutional law. In short, the Undue Burden standard says the ...

                                               

Warrant (law)

A warrant is a writ that permits someone to take a specific legal action. Most often the writ is from a judge. It is used by law enforcement to take actions such as searching for evidence, making an arrest or seizing property.

                                               

Witness

A witness is someone who sees something happen. They are often used in court to help find the truth. During a trial, the two lawyers will bring in witnesses to help back up their arguments. In a criminal trial, the prosecution lawyer will often b ...

                                               

Writ

In English common law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. In modern use this generally is a court. Writs are issued by courts directing the person to whom they are addressed to do somet ...

                                               

Australia Act 1986

The Australia Act 1986 is the name of a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation. One was an Act of the Commonwealth Parliament of Australia. The other was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. These nearly identical Acts were ...

                                               

Canada Elections Act

The Canada Elections Act is an Act of the Parliament of Canada which regulates the election of members of parliament to the House of Commons of Canada. The Canada Election Act limits spending on election advertising by interest groups, which was ...

                                               

Foreign-buyers tax

The Foreign-buyers tax is a property transfer tax of 15% on residential property purchased by foreign buyers in British Columbia. A property transfer tax is paid only once for each property owner, while property taxes are paid every year. The tax ...

                                               

Ontario Heritage Act

The Ontario Heritage Act is a law that was made on March 5, 1975. It lets the Province of Ontario and cities protect important buildings and other places. These places are called designated heritage properties.

                                               

House of Representatives

A House of Representatives is a part of some legislatures, which are law-making bodies. In a House of Representatives, the members are called representatives. For example, the legislature of the United States, called Congress, is made up of two p ...