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Senate

In a modern democracy, a senate is a group of people who are part of a legislature. A legislature passes or changes laws for their country, state, or other area. Members of a senate are called senators. Some legislatures are bicameral, meaning th ...

                                               

Bicameral

A Bicameral system of government is one where there are two legislative or parliamentary chambers. The word comes from the Latin "bi" and "camera". In most cases they have different numbers of members. The smaller legislature is often called the ...

                                               

Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union is one of the three organisations that manage the European Union. Along with the European Parliament, it is responsible for law making for the European Union. Its members are the government ministers of the membe ...

                                               

Lower house

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature. The other chamber is called the upper house. Although it is called the "lower" house, in many legislatures in the world it actually has more power than the "upper" house.

                                               

State legislature (United States)

Every state legislature except Nebraskas is bicameral. This means that they have an upper house and a lower house. They are similar to the United States Congress in what they look like.

                                               

Fundamental rights

Fundamental rights are a set of rights that are recognized under the laws of a country to protect their citizens. These laws protect these rights even from the governments themselves. These protected rights include the right to life, right to fre ...

                                               

Gomillion v. Lightfoot

Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339, was a United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled the redrawing of the citys electoral district boundaries to prevent blacks from voting was unconstitutional. The unanimous Court held that i ...

                                               

Minority rights

The term minority rights refers to the rights of minority groups. This includes the individual rights of a groups members and the collective rights of the group itself. These groups can be racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or sexual mi ...

                                               

Natural rights

Natural rights are rights that believe it is important for all humans and animals to have out of These rights are often viewed as inalienable, meaning they can almost never be taken away. The concept of what are natural rights has varied througho ...

                                               

United States v. Wong Kim Ark

United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that a child born in the United States to parents of Chinese descent automatically becomes a U.S. citizen by birth based on the Citizenshi ...

                                               

Treaty

A treaty is a written agreement between two or more parties that consists international law. The parties may be countries or other important groups. A treaty may be about any subject. Two countries might agree to stop a war, or declare war on a c ...

                                               

Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement

The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement is an international treaty that wants to make it easier to fight product piracy to protect intellectual property. This includes fighting counterfeits and copyright infringement, and imposing stricter regula ...

                                               

Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon was signed on 13 December 2007 between 27 European states that are members of the European Union. It became effective on December 1, 2009. It is now the document that defines the Union, but it is not a constitution. It gives ...

                                               

Trial

In a civil trial, there is a plaintiff and a defendant. The plaintiff tries to prove that he or she has a reason why the defendant needs to give him or her money.

                                               

Innocence

Innocence is the opposite of guilt. The adjective is innocent. If someone is innocent of a crime it means that they did not do it. If someone is accused of a crime, they have to go to court. The court will decide whether they are guilty or not gu ...

                                               

Jury

A jury is a group of ordinary people, who arent employees of the court, who decide the answer to a question in a court room. Usually, this question is whether a person is guilty or innocent of committing a crime. A jury may also be responsible fo ...

                                               

Canon law

Canon law is the term used for the internal Ecclesiastical law of many churches, such as the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches.

                                               

Statutory law

Statutory law is written law set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify ex ...

                                               

COSHH

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 is a set of rules in the United Kingdom. Employers are to protect employees and other persons from the hazards of substances used at work. The tasks that employers have to make accord ...

                                               

English Climate Emergency Education Act

The English Climate Emergency Education Bill was the first ever student-written education bill in the UK, it is a draft bill and has not been introduced to parliament.

                                               

Law of the United States

The law of the United States is made up of many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law. The most important these is the United States Constitution. This established the federal government of the United States. The Constitution sets out th ...

                                               

Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia

Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia, 590 U.S. ___, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects employees against discrimination because of their sexual orientation ...

                                               

Boynton v. Virginia

Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. On December 20, 1958, Bruce Boynton, a senior at Howard Law School, left Washington, D.C. on a bus to go home for Christmas to Montgomery, Alabama. At th ...

                                               

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act

The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, often referred to as the Brady Act and commonly called the Brady Bill, is an Act of the United States Congress that made background checks on firearm purchasers in the United States required and created ...

                                               

Browder v. Gayle

Browder v. Gayle, 142 F. Supp. 707, was a case heard before a three-judge panel of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama on Montgomery and Alabama state bus segregation laws. The District Court ruled 2-1, with one di ...

                                               

Brown v. Board of Education II

Brown v. Board of Education II was a Supreme Court case decided in 1955. The year before, the Supreme Court had decided Brown v. Board of Education, which made racial segregation in schools illegal. However, many all-white schools in the United S ...

                                               

Citizenship in the United States

Citizenship in the United States means being a citizen of the United States. A person who has citizenship is called a citizen. Citizenship does not just mean that a person lives in the United States. United States citizenship gives people many ri ...

                                               

Civil Rights Act of 1875

The Civil Rights Act of 1875, sometimes called Enforcement Act or Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction era to guarantee African Americans equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and ...

                                               

Endorsement test

The endorsement test was proposed by Sandra Day OConnor, a member of the United States Supreme Court. She suggested it in her judgment in a lawsuit called Lynch v. Donnelly in 1984. The endorsement test is a question that you can ask if you think ...

                                               

Escobedo v. Illinois

Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S. 478, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case decided in 1964. The Court ruled that suspects in crimes have the right to have a lawyer with them while they are being questioned by the police. This case was de ...

                                               

Executive order (United States)

An executive order is a rule or order made by a President of the United States. The order tells agencies and officers of the Federal government of the United States things that they must do. Executive orders can be stopped by the courts in a proc ...

                                               

Executive Order 13769

Executive Order 13769, also called Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, is an executive order signed by United States President Donald Trump on January 27, 2017. It limits travel to the United States from som ...

                                               

Gregg v. Georgia

Gregg v. Georgia, Proffitt v. Florida, Jurek v. Texas, Woodson v. North Carolina, and Roberts v. Louisiana, 428 U.S. 153 were a group of landmark cases that the United States Supreme Court decided together in 1976. They had to do with capital pun ...

                                               

Henderson v. United States (1950)

Henderson v. United States, 339 U.S. 816, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that abolished segregation in railroad dining cars.

                                               

Immigration Act of 1917

The Immigration Act of 1917 was a United States law to stop certain types of people from moving to the US to live. It was the first law to try and restrict immigration, rather than try to control it. People wanting to immigrate had to pass litera ...

                                               

Judicial nullification

Judicial nullification is a right of a judge to nullify a law if they feel it is too harsh in a certain situation where it is being applied. During the Constitutional Convention many, including George Mason, Elbridge Gerry and James Wilson felt t ...

                                               

Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael

Patrick Carmichael was driving his minivan on July 6, 1993, when the right rear tire blew out. One of the passengers in the vehicle died, and others were severely injured. Three months later, the Carmichaels sued the manufacturer of the tire, cla ...

                                               

Landmark decision

A Landmark decision, or Landmark court decision, establishes new precedents that establish a significant new legal principle or concept. Or it changes the interpretation of existing law. In Commonwealth countries, a reported decision is said to b ...

                                               

Liebeck v. McDonalds Restaurants

Liebeck v. McDonalds Restaurants is also known as the McDonalds coffee case ". It is a lawsuit between Stella Liebeck and McDonalds. Stella Liebeck was badly injured by hot coffee. She had bought the coffee from a McDonalds restaurant. A jury awa ...

                                               

McCulloch v. Maryland

McCulloch v. Maryland was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The US state of Maryland decided to tax all banknotes by banks not chartered by the state of Maryland. The only bank in Maryland at the time that did not hav ...

                                               

Miranda warning

A Miranda warning is a list of rights that people in the United States have when they are being questioned by the police or arrested. These rights are called Miranda rights. Because of a United States Supreme Court decision in a case called Miran ...

                                               

Murder (United States law)

Under the laws of the United States of America, the crime of Murder can fall under different jurisdictions. In some cases, the state prosecutes those accused of murder. In other cases, the federal government has jurisdiction. Who the victim of a ...

                                               

Obergefell v. Hodges

Obergefell v. Hodges was a landmark decision United States Supreme Court case. The Court held that the recognition and provision of same-sex marriage is a fundamental right. They ruled it is guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United St ...

                                               

Plessy v. Ferguson

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled segregation was legal, as long as equal facilities were provided for both races. The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1. The majority opinion was writte ...

                                               

PROTECT IP Act

The Protect Intellectual Property Act, also called PIPA, was a proposed American law to stop copyright infringement on the Internet. The law would give copyright holders new ways to deal with websites infringing copyright. Critics said the propos ...

                                               

Report of 1800

The Report of 1800 was a resolution drafted by James Madison. It argued for the sovereignty of the individual states under the United States Constitution and against the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Virginia General Assembly adopted the Report in ...

                                               

Stop Online Piracy Act

The Stop Online Piracy Act or SOPA was a proposed American law to stop copyright infringement on the Internet. The Internet community had major discussion over it in 2011 and 2012, but the bill was not passed. Some experts said the proposed chang ...

                                               

Trusty system (prison)

The trusty system was a system that Mississippi State Penitentiary and other prisons used to control prisoners. In the trusty system, some prisoners were given more power than others. These trusties guarded the other prisoners. The trusty system ...

                                               

International auxiliary language

An International auxiliary language is a language that is intended for communication between people who have different first languages. Languages of large societies over the centuries have almost reached the international level, for example Latin ...

                                               

Transcription (linguistics)

Transcription is the conversion of a text from another medium. That can be the conversion of human speech into written, typewritten or printed form. But it can also mean the scanning of books and making digital versions. A transcriber is a person ...