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Vesak

Vesākha or Vesak is a holy day. It is observed traditionally by Buddhists in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and the South East Asian countries of Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, and Indonesia. Sometimes it is c ...

                                               

Nobel Prize

Every year, the Nobel Prizes are given to people and institutions around the world. These prizes are for the study of science and for world peace. The science prizes include Literature, Science, and Medicine. The Nobel Prize was started by Alfred ...

                                               

Karolinska Institutet

Karolinska Institutet, and before 1968, the Royal Caroline Institute is one of Europes biggest medical universities. It was started in 1810 on Kungsholmen island on the west side of Stockholm. It later moved to Solna, just outside Stockholm, and ...

                                               

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademin is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. The Academy is an independent, scientific, non-governmental organization, set up to support the sciences, mainly the natural sciences an ...

                                               

Croix de Guerre

The Croix de guerre is a military medal of both France and Belgium. It was first created in 1915 in both countries. It consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awar ...

                                               

Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria

The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria is a national honour awarded by the Republic of Austria. It is a visible honour. It is also called the Order of Merit of the Austrian Republic. The Order has 15 levels. It is Austri ...

                                               

Military orders, awards and decorations

A military decoration is an award, usually a medal that consists of a ribbon and medallion given to an person for either gallantry, or outstanding service or achievement. Civil decorations awarded to military personnel are not considered military ...

                                               

Order of the Aztec Eagle

The Order of the Aztec Eagle is a Mexican order and is the highest decoration awarded to foreigners in the country. It is the highest honor in Mexico. Recipients include Dwight D. Eisenhower, Elizabeth II, Nelson Rockefeller, Ted Kennedy, Cesar C ...

                                               

Order of the Federal Republic

Nigerian National Honours are decorations awarded to Nigerians and friends of Nigeria every year. They were instituted by the National Honors Act No. 5 of 1964, during the First Nigerian Republic, to honour Nigerians who have made the nation better.

                                               

Order of the Rising Sun

The Order of the Rising Sun is a Japanese government honor established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese Government, It was created on April 10, 1875 by decree of the Council of State. T ...

                                               

Param Vir Chakra

The Param Vir Chakra is Indias highest military decoration awarded for the highest degree of valour or self-sacrifice in the presence of the enemy. The medal has been awarded 21 times, 14 of which were posthumous awards. Literally Param Vir Chakr ...

                                               

Royal Order of Crown of Rwanda

Royal Order of the Crown of Rwanda, the second-highest, non-religious, decoration/order for merit in the De jure Kingdom of Rwanda. It is the inheritor of ancient pagan tradition envisioned by H.M. King Mutara III of Rwanda in 1950 and it was for ...

                                               

Pritzker Architecture Prize

The Pritzker Architecture Prize is given each year by the Hyatt Foundation. It is for talented and significant architect who has created great projects throughout his or her life. Jay A. Pritzker and his wife Cindy began the award in 1979. The Pr ...

                                               

Symbolism (art)

Symbolism was a late 19th-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin. The movement rejected realism and naturalism, and included poetry and other arts. Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only ...

                                               

Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation, or absorption, is an intense process of consistent integration in which members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants or other minority groups, are "absorbed" into an established, generally larger community, with ...

                                               

Eastern world

The term Eastern world means very broadly the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems of Eastern Asia or geographically the Eastern Culture. This includes the Indian subcontinent, the Far East, Australasia. The Middle East ...

                                               

20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy covers thinkers who wrote and produced ideas in philosophy during the twentieth century. New ways of thinking about problems were put forward following the success of science and advances in mathematics and other areas of ...

                                               

Action theory

Other philosophers say that the want-think theory is not true. They say that it is my brain and my nerves that causes an action. They see the brain as working like a computer that directs small electric packages from some nerves to other nerves a ...

                                               

Aesthetics

Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy. It is the study of art and beauty. Together with ethics it is part of axiology which is the philosophy of what people like. Aesthetic philosophers ask what people like to look at, hear, feel, smell or taste, ...

                                               

Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy started in the 6th century BC and continued during the Hellenistic period and Roman Empire. Philosophy was a way to think about the world. The term was invented in Greece. Back then it included the sciences, maths, politi ...

                                               

Ancient philosophy

Ancient philosophy refers to the philosophies of Ancient China, Greece, Rome, India, Iran, etc. These places had large empires before 200 BC. This time is sometimes called the Axial Age of thought.

                                               

Appeal to nature

An appeal to nature is an argument that says a thing is good because it is natural, or bad because it is unnatural. It can be a bad argument for two reasons. First, not everyone agrees on what is "natural" or "unnatural". For example, eating meat ...

                                               

Argument from design

The argument from design is an argument for the existence of God or a creator. According to the argument, the appearance of design in nature is evidence for the existence of God. The argument is teleological, because it assumes a purpose. The wor ...

                                               

Autonomy

Autonomy means being able to rule without having to obey some other higher authority. Autonomy is something that philosophers often talk about. The idea occurs in moral, political, and bioethical philosophy. It means that someone is able to make ...

                                               

Concept

A concept is an idea that is applied to all objects in a group. It is the way people see and understand something. The name used to identify a concept is a "term". For example, the word "Dog" is the term to identify the concept of what a dog is. ...

                                               

Cynic

The Cynics were an important group of philosophers from the ancient school of Cynicism. Their philosophy taught that the purpose of life was to live a life of Virtue in agreement with Nature. This meant rejecting all the usual desires for wealth, ...

                                               

Dialectic

In philosophy, dialectic is an argument or debate between different people. In Medieval Europe, dialectics was one of the three beginning liberal arts all together known as the trivium; the other members being rhetorics and grammar. The goal of t ...

                                               

Fact

A fact is a statement that is real or true, or a thing that can be shown to be real or true. A fact is something that has really happened or is actually the case. The usual test for a statement of fact is whether it can be seen to be true. Standa ...

                                               

Factoid

Factoid is stating a fact that is not backed up by evidence. The factoid may not be trusted because a it is actually false, or b because evidence to support it cannot be checked. Factoids become widely treated as if they were true. In 1973, the t ...

                                               

Fraternity

Fraternity is some kind of morality, ethics or idea. A synonym of fraternity is brotherhood. Fraternity is adopted for the national motto of France, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". Japans prime minister Ichiro Hatoyama had an idea of a fraternit ...

                                               

German philosophy

German philosophy refers to philosophy written in German or by German philosophers. It started in the 17th century during the Age of Enlightenment, from Leibniz and Wolff through Kant, Schelling, Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Marx, Engels, and int ...

                                               

Ghost in the Machine

The Ghost in the Machine is a metaphor in philosophy. The philosopher Gilbert Ryle called mind the Ghost in the Machine, and the idea that it was separate from the brain was the mistaken "official doctrine". Ryle was referring to Rene Descartes m ...

                                               

God is dead

God is dead is a well known phrase by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It is also known as the death of God. The phrase is not meant literally. Instead it is about what value destruction has done to peoples belief in Christianity. Some ...

                                               

God paradox

The God paradox is an idea in philosophy. This idea is explained here: If God is able to do anything, may this mean He is able to make a mountain heavier than He is able to lift? This is a paradox because: If God is not able to make such a mounta ...

                                               

Happiness pump

A happiness pump is an idea in philosophy. A happiness pump is someone who will do anything to make other people happy even if it makes them very unhappy themselves. They have turned themselves into a machine that makes happiness. The happiness p ...

                                               

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosophy is philosophy that is practiced in countries where Islam has a strong influence on society. The product of Islamic philosophy is an Islamic society. Philosophy, as a "project of independent philosophical inquiry", began in Bagh ...

                                               

Karma

Karma is a word meaning the result of a persons actions as well as the actions themselves. It is a term about the cycle of cause and effect. According to the theory of Karma, what happens to a person, happens because they caused it with their act ...

                                               

Nastika

Astika and Nastika: are technical terms in Hinduism used to classify philosophical schools and persons, according to whether they accept the authority of the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures, or not. By this definition, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sa ...

                                               

Natural law

Natural law is the idea that there are forms of law that exist by themselves in nature, regardless of whether people exist or recognise them or not. Unlike other forms of law that have been agreed on by society, such laws would be given to all, a ...

                                               

Newcombs paradox

Newcombs paradox is a thought experiment in philosophy, specifically decision theory. The paradox goes as follows: Imagine a super-intelligent entity known as Omega, and suppose you are confident in its ability to predict your choices. Maybe Omeg ...

                                               

Ontological argument

The ontological argument is an idea in religious philosophy. It is supposed to show that God exists. There are different versions, but they all argue something like: because we can imagine a perfect being, there must be a god. The idea is that ex ...

                                               

Ordinary language philosophy

Ordinary language philosophy is a way of doing philosophy that uses ordinary, everyday words. It came out of analytic philosophy, the most common way of doing philosophy in English-speaking countries in the 20th century. Analytic philosophers lik ...

                                               

Paradigm

In philosophy of science, a paradigm is a way of thinking about a problem. The word comes from Greek παράδειγμα, "pattern, example, sample" from the verb παραδείκνυμι, "exhibit, represent, expose" and that from παρά, "beside, beyond" and δείκνυμι ...

                                               

Pascals Wager

Pascals Wager is the name for an idea that Blaise Pascal had. He said that it is not possible to prove or disprove that God exists. Therefore, it is better to bet that God exists. If God existed, and the person believed in God, he would be reward ...

                                               

Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language is the study of how languages were created and are used. It is part of Linguistics. In continental philosophy, it is not treated as a subject by itself, but Ludwig Wittgenstein and other analytic philosophers placed particu ...

                                               

Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is one part of philosophy that works with the mind. It is about thinking how the mind works, and how it relates to the world. It also deals with consciousness, which is also researched in psychology and physics.

                                               

Political philosophy

Political philosophy is the study of politics, liberty, justice, property, and rights. Also the law, and its enforcement by authority. It concerns not the details, but the basic principles, reasons and arguments. Topics studied include the purpos ...

                                               

Problem of evil

The problem of evil is the question whether evil exists, and if so does it disprove the existence of God. Certain religions say there is a god who is all-loving, all-knowing and all-powerful. In these religions, the question to answer is how an a ...

                                               

Qualia

Qualia is a term philosophers use for bits of perception or subjective, conscious experience. It is in the field called the philosophy of psychology, or philosophy of mind. Examples of qualia include the pain of a headache, the taste of wine, or ...

                                               

Rationality

Rationality is the state that exists when reason is used. Its also related to moderation in some contexts and sensibility in others. When a person is reasonable or rational they are using all available information to make a decision, and whether ...