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Endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum is a cellular organelle. It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm. The endoplasmic reticulum is in cells that have a nucleus: in eukaryot ...

                                               

Golgi complex

The Golgi complex, also known as the Golgi apparatus or simply the Golgi, is a cytoplasmic organelle. It is found in eukaryote cells, as in animals, plants, and fungi. The complex was discovered by Camillo Golgi in 1898. Golgi, who worked at Pavi ...

                                               

Hydrogenosome

A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi and a few metazoa. The hydrogenosomes of trichomonads produce ATP by a complex metabolic cycle. Unlike mitochondria, this cycle does not use oxygen. ...

                                               

Mitochondria

Mitochondria are organelles, or parts of a eukaryote cell. They are in the cytoplasm, not the nucleus. They make most of the cells supply of adenosine triphosphate ATP, a molecule that cells use as a source of energy. Their main job is to convert ...

                                               

Plastid

A plastid is a self-reproducing organelle of plants and algae. A plastome is the DNA genome of a plastid. p341 They are like tiny machines inside cells: each makes or stores important chemicals used by the plant. Examples of plastids are: Elaiopl ...

                                               

Ribosome

Ribosomes are important cell organelles. It does RNA translation, building proteins from amino acids using messenger RNA as a template. Ribosomes are found in all living cells, prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. A ribosome is a mixture of protein ...

                                               

Vacuole

A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle. They are a kind of vesicle. Vacuoles are closed sacs, made of membranes with inorganic or organic molecules inside, such as enzymes. They have no set shape or size, and the cell can change them as needed. ...

                                               

Gall

A gall is a growth on the surface of plants and other lifeforms. They are caused by various parasites, such as fungi, bacteria, insects and mites. Plant galls are abnormal growths of plant tissues similar to benign tumors or warts in animals. Wha ...

                                               

Leaf miner

A leaf miner is the larva of an insect which lives inside a leaf and eats it. Most leaf-mining insects are moths, sawflies and flies. Some beetles also do this. Like woodboring beetles, leaf miners are protected from many predators and plant defe ...

                                               

Vessel element

A vessel element is one of the cell types found in xylem, the water conducting tissue of plants. Vessel elements are found in flowering plants angiosperms but not in most gymnosperms such as conifers. Vessel elements are the main feature distingu ...

                                               

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and some microorganisms make substances like carbohydrates. It is an endothermic chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars. The sugars are used by the cell as energy, and ...

                                               

Rapid plant movement

Rapid plant movement means quick movement of plant structures, usually under a second. For example, the Venus Flytrap closes its trap in about 100 milliseconds. Some other carnivorous plants, such as the bladderworts, also have a rapid response t ...

                                               

Bladderwort

Bladderworts are Utricularia, a genus of carnivorous plants. There are about 230 species. They occur in fresh water and wet soil as terrestrial or aquatic species. They live in every continent except Antarctica. Bladderworts are cultivated for th ...

                                               

Cornus canadensis

Cornus canadensis is a herbaceous member of the Cornaceae family. It has various common names, such as the Bunchberry dogwood, Canadian Bunchberry, Quatre-temps, or Crackerberry. It is a widespread plant of the northern hemisphere. It grows about ...

                                               

Mimosa pudica

Mimosa pudica is a well-known species of Mimosa. It is a creeping annual or perennial herb often grown for its curiosity value: the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shaken, re-opening minutes later. The species is native to S ...

                                               

Orchid

The orchids are a large family of flowering plants, the Orchidaceae. They are herbaceous monocots. There are between 22.000 and 26.000 species in 880 genera. They make up between 6–11% of all seed plants. Orchids can be found in almost every coun ...

                                               

Cypripedioideae

Ladys slipper orchids are the orchids in the subfamily Cypripedioideae. They are special because of their slipper-shaped pouches on their flowers. The pouch traps insects so that they must climb up past the modified stamens, where they get or giv ...

                                               

Bryophyte

Bryophytes are simple plants. They are the simplest plants that grow on land. There are three forms of bryophyte. These are mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Bryophyta is the formal term for this division of plants who do not have tissues to move ...

                                               

Flowering plant

A flowering plant is the dominant land plant today. Together with the gymnosperms they make up the seed plants. They are different from the gymnosperms because angiosperms bear flowers, and have enclosed ovules. Gymnosperms bear naked seeds on co ...

                                               

Aristolochiaceae

The Aristolochiaceae, or Birthwort family, are a family of flowering plants with seven genera and about 400 species belonging to the order Piperales. The type genus is Aristolochia L.

                                               

Carnivorous plant

Carnivorous plants are plants which get nutrients from trapping and eating animals. They are often called insectivorous plants, because they usually trap insects. Since they get some of their food from animals, carnivorous plants can grow in plac ...

                                               

Dicotyledon

The dicotyledons, also known as dicots, were one of the two groups of flowering plants or angiosperms. The name refers to one of the characteristics of the group, namely that the seed has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. There are around 200.0 ...

                                               

Khat

Khat is a flowering plant native to tropical East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. It is also known as qat, qaat, quat, gat, jaad, chat, chad, chaad and miraa. The plant is grown commercially in Kenya, Oman, Yemen and Ethiopia. Khat is a shrub. ...

                                               

Laurales

The Laurales are an order of flowering plants. They are a basal group of dicots. They are related to, and sometimes included in, the Magnoliales. The order includes 85-90 genera from seven families of trees and shrubs. Most of the species are tro ...

                                               

Milkweed

The milkweeds, Asclepias, are a genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants that contains over 140 known species. Milkweeds are an important nectar source for bees and other nectar eaters, and a food source for caterpillars. The weeds ar ...

                                               

Pitcher plant

A pitcher plant is a carnivorous plant. Carnivorous plants are plants that eat insects and other small animals. Carnivorous plants grow in soil that has little nitrogen. All living things must have nitrogen. Carnivorous plants get nitrogen from t ...

                                               

Platanus orientalis

Platanus orientalis, also called Oriental plane tree and chenar, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family. It is known for its longevity and spreading crown. The species name derives from its historical distribution eastward from the ...

                                               

Schefflera actinophylla

Schefflera actinophylla is a tree in the Araliaceae family. It is native to tropical rainforests and gallery forests in Australia, New Guinea and Java. Common names include Umbrella Tree, Octopus Tree and Amate. The elegant schefflera is popular ...

                                               

Agavaceae

Agavaceae is a family of plants. Many of these plants grow in dry, hot climates. Some grow in the desert. Well-known plants of this family are the agave, yucca, and Joshua tree. The family includes about 550-600 species in around 18 genera. It is ...

                                               

Bromeliad

Bromeliads are a family of tropical plants which includes the pineapple and several colourful houseplants. They are nearly all from Latin America and the Caribbean islands, except for Spanish moss from the southern United States, and a single kin ...

                                               

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae is a family of flowering plants, variously called the madder, bedstraw, or coffee family. There are about 600 genera and more than 10.000 species in Rubiaceae. There are three subfamilies: Rubioideae, Cinchonoideae and Ixoroideae.

                                               

Vascular plant

The vascular plants, or tracheophytes, are plants that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. They include the ferns, clubmosses, horsetails, flowering plants, conifers and other gy ...

                                               

Horsetail

The horsetails are a class in the Pteridophyta. They were one of the most important plant groups in the Palaeozoic era. They are seen in the coal measures of the Carboniferous period, and some were trees reaching up 30 metres. The group is now al ...

                                               

Lycopod

The Lycopods are the oldest surviving vascular plant division. It is a vascular plant subdivision of the plant kingdom. Its earliest fossils are from 428–410 million years ago. p99 The Lycopods include some of the most primitive basal living spec ...

                                               

Non-vascular plant

Non-vascular plants is a general term for those plants without a vascular system. Although non-vascular plants do not have these tissues, some of them have other tissues for internal transport of water. Nonvascular plants have no roots, stems, or ...

                                               

Algae

Algae are a type of plant-like living things that can make food from sunlight by photosynthesis. The study of algae is called phycology or algology. The term covers a range of photosynthetic organisms, and many are not closely related. They are a ...

                                               

Deadly nightshade

Deadly nightshade or belladonna is a well-known, hardy perennial shrub. It is a member of the nightshade family. Originally, it grew in Europe, North Africa, and Asia. It has also been seen in North America, but is far less common there. Usually ...

                                               

Acacia baileyana

The Cootamundra Wattle is an Australian shrub or tree. It is in the Family Fabaceae. The trees Latin name, Acacia baileyana, is named after the botanist Frederick Manson Bailey. It is one of nearly 1000 species of Acacia found in Australia. The C ...

                                               

Coriaria

Most of the species are shrubs but some are subshrubs small shrubs or small trees. Leaves are simple, opposite or whorled, with 3 to 9 major veins coming from the base. The fruits look like berries but they are small nuts achenes protected by enl ...

                                               

Coriaria myrtifolia

Coriaria myrtifolia, called in English redoul, is a plant with poisonus fruits and whose leaves were traditionally used as raw material in tanning.

                                               

Coriaria nepalensis

It is a shrub, 1.5-2.5 metres tall. Flowers are in groups inflorescences and they are male or female but in the same plant; their color is yellow. It blooms from February to May. Fruits are red to dark purple when mature. They look like berries b ...

                                               

Coriaria ruscifolia

This species has many names in Latin America. Some of them are: Chile: deu, dehue-lahuen, deo, hiuque, matarratones "kill mice", veu. Ecuador: piñan, shanshi, shanchi or zhanzhi, tinta. Mexico: helecho de tierra, tlalocopetate, tlalocopatlat. Per ...

                                               

Dracaena sanderiana

Dracaena sanderiana, also called Ribbon Dracaena, Lucky Bamboo, Belgian Evergreen or sometimes Ribbon Plant, is a kind of Dracaena. It comes from Central Africa. It is one of a group of small, shrubby plants with slender stems and flexible strap- ...

                                               

Iboga

Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub, native to western Central Africa. Iboga can be used as a drug; it stimulates the central nervous system when taken in small doses and induces hallucinations in larger doses. In pa ...

                                               

Ugni

They are small evergreen shrubs. The leaves are simple, entire, opposite, elliptical; they are 1–2 cm long and 0.2-2.5 cm broad, dark green, and with a spicy scent if broken into many small pieces. The solitary flowers are usually hanging; they a ...

                                               

Tree

A tree is a tall plant with a trunk and branches made of wood. Trees can live for many years. The oldest tree ever discovered is approximately 5.000 years old and the oldest tree from the UK is about 1.000. The four main parts of a tree are the r ...

                                               

Aesculus glabra

Aesculus glabra or Ohio buckeye is a type of tree. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree that grows to be 15 metres to 25 metres tall. It lives in several states in eastern North America: Pennsylvania, Ohio, Nebraska, Texas, and Georgia. It also gr ...

                                               

Ash tree

Ash trees are medium to large trees of the genus Fraxinus of the family Oleaceae. The family contains between 45 and 65 species. Some of them are evergreen, but most are deciduous. They grow in most parts of the world. The seeds are commonly know ...

                                               

Aspen

Aspens are a type of poplar tree with leaves that move with the slightest wind. The two main species are both called trembling aspens or quaking aspens on account of their leaves.

                                               

Bodhi Tree

The Bodhi Tree was a large and very old sacred fig tree. It was at the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya. Siddhartha Gautama, the spiritual teacher and founder of Buddhism, later known as Gautama Buddha, achieved Bodhi while sitting under this tree. ...